# Example: Standard model of physics

Published 2016-12-31 | Author: Carsten Burgard

A standard diagram of the current standard model of physics.

In some ways, this was the ultimate, single-diagram user experience challenge: all of our current understanding of the universe condensed into a single infographic.

This improved diagram of the standard model of physics was made at the CERN Webfest 2012 by David Galbraith and Carsten Burgard.

Programmed in TikZ by Carsten Burgard.

Do you have a question regarding this example, TikZ or LaTeX in general? Just ask in the LaTeX Forum.
Oder frag auf Deutsch auf TeXwelt.de. En français: TeXnique.fr.

% Standard model of physics
% Author: Carsten Burgard
\documentclass[border=10pt]{standalone}
\usepackage{tikz}
\usepackage{etoolbox}

\tikzset{%
brace/.style = { decorate, decoration={brace, amplitude=5pt} },
mbrace/.style = { decorate, decoration={brace, amplitude=5pt, mirror} },
label/.style = { black, midway, scale=0.5, align=center },
toplabel/.style = { label, above=.5em, anchor=south },
leftlabel/.style = { label,rotate=-90,left=.5em,anchor=north },
bottomlabel/.style = { label, below=.5em, anchor=north },
force/.style = { rotate=-90,scale=0.4 },
round/.style = { rounded corners=2mm },
legend/.style = { right,scale=0.4 },
nosep/.style = { inner sep=0pt },
generation/.style = { anchor=base }
}

\newcommand\particle[7][white]{%
\begin{tikzpicture}[x=1cm, y=1cm]
arc (90:0:1mm) -- (1.0,-0.9) arc (0:-90:1mm) -- (0.1,-1.0)
arc (-90:-180:1mm) -- (0,-0.1) arc(180:90:1mm) -- cycle;
\ifstrempty{#7}{}{\path[fill=purple!50!white]
(0.6,0) --(0.7,0) -- (1.0,-0.3) -- (1.0,-0.4);}
\ifstrempty{#6}{}{\path[fill=green!50!black!50] (0.7,0) -- (0.9,0)
arc (90:0:1mm) -- (1.0,-0.3);}
\ifstrempty{#5}{}{\path[fill=orange!50!white] (1.0,-0.7) -- (1.0,-0.9)
arc (0:-90:1mm) -- (0.7,-1.0);}
\draw[\ifstrempty{#2}{dashed}{black}] (0.1,0) -- (0.9,0)
arc (90:0:1mm) -- (1.0,-0.9) arc (0:-90:1mm) -- (0.1,-1.0)
arc (-90:-180:1mm) -- (0,-0.1) arc(180:90:1mm) -- cycle;
\ifstrempty{#7}{}{\node at(0.825,-0.175) [rotate=-45,scale=0.2] {#7};}
\ifstrempty{#6}{}{\node at(0.9,-0.1)  [nosep,scale=0.17] {#6};}
\ifstrempty{#5}{}{\node at(0.9,-0.9)  [nosep,scale=0.2] {#5};}
\ifstrempty{#4}{}{\node at(0.1,-0.1)  [nosep,anchor=west,scale=0.25]{#4};}
\ifstrempty{#3}{}{\node at(0.1,-0.85) [nosep,anchor=west,scale=0.3] {#3};}
\ifstrempty{#2}{}{\node at(0.1,-0.5)  [nosep,anchor=west,scale=1.5] {#2};}
\end{tikzpicture}
}

\begin{document}
\begin{tikzpicture}[x=1.2cm, y=1.2cm]
\draw[round] (-0.5,0.5) rectangle (4.4,-1.5);
\draw[round] (-0.6,0.6) rectangle (5.0,-2.5);
\draw[round] (-0.7,0.7) rectangle (5.6,-3.5);

\node at(0, 0)   {\particle[gray!20!white]
{$u$}        {up}       {$2.3$ MeV}{1/2}{$2/3$}{R/G/B}};
\node at(0,-1)   {\particle[gray!20!white]
{$d$}        {down}    {$4.8$ MeV}{1/2}{$-1/3$}{R/G/B}};
\node at(0,-2)   {\particle[gray!20!white]
{$e$}        {electron}       {$511$ keV}{1/2}{$-1$}{}};
\node at(0,-3)   {\particle[gray!20!white]
{$\nu_e$}    {$e$ neutrino}         {$<2$ eV}{1/2}{}{}};
\node at(1, 0)   {\particle
{$c$}        {charm}   {$1.28$ GeV}{1/2}{$2/3$}{R/G/B}};
\node at(1,-1)   {\particle
{$s$}        {strange}  {$95$ MeV}{1/2}{$-1/3$}{R/G/B}};
\node at(1,-2)   {\particle
{$\mu$}      {muon}         {$105.7$ MeV}{1/2}{$-1$}{}};
\node at(1,-3)   {\particle
{$\nu_\mu$}  {$\mu$ neutrino}    {$<190$ keV}{1/2}{}{}};
\node at(2, 0)   {\particle
{$t$}        {top}    {$173.2$ GeV}{1/2}{$2/3$}{R/G/B}};
\node at(2,-1)   {\particle
{$b$}        {bottom}  {$4.7$ GeV}{1/2}{$-1/3$}{R/G/B}};
\node at(2,-2)   {\particle
{$\tau$}     {tau}          {$1.777$ GeV}{1/2}{$-1$}{}};
\node at(2,-3)   {\particle
{$\nu_\tau$} {$\tau$ neutrino}  {$<18.2$ MeV}{1/2}{}{}};
\node at(3,-3)   {\particle[orange!20!white]
{$W^{\hspace{-.3ex}\scalebox{.5}{$\pm$}}$}
{}              {$80.4$ GeV}{1}{$\pm1$}{}};
\node at(4,-3)   {\particle[orange!20!white]
{$Z$}        {}                    {$91.2$ GeV}{1}{}{}};
\node at(3.5,-2) {\particle[green!50!black!20]
{$\gamma$}   {photon}                        {}{1}{}{}};
\node at(3.5,-1) {\particle[purple!20!white]
{$g$}        {gluon}                    {}{1}{}{color}};
\node at(5,0)    {\particle[gray!50!white]
{$H$}        {Higgs}              {$125.1$ GeV}{0}{}{}};
\node at(6.1,-3) {\particle
{}           {graviton}                       {}{}{}{}};

\node at(4.25,-0.5) [force]      {strong nuclear force (color)};
\node at(4.85,-1.5) [force]    {electromagnetic force (charge)};
\node at(5.45,-2.4) [force] {weak nuclear force (weak isospin)};
\node at(6.75,-2.5) [force]        {gravitational force (mass)};

\draw [<-] (2.5,0.3)   -- (2.7,0.3)          node [legend] {charge};
\draw [<-] (2.5,0.15)  -- (2.7,0.15)         node [legend] {colors};
\draw [<-] (2.05,0.25) -- (2.3,0) -- (2.7,0) node [legend]   {mass};
\draw [<-] (2.5,-0.3)  -- (2.7,-0.3)         node [legend]   {spin};

\draw [mbrace] (-0.8,0.5)  -- (-0.8,-1.5)
node[leftlabel] {6 quarks\\(+6 anti-quarks)};
\draw [mbrace] (-0.8,-1.5) -- (-0.8,-3.5)
node[leftlabel] {6 leptons\\(+6 anti-leptons)};
\draw [mbrace] (-0.5,-3.6) -- (2.5,-3.6)
node[bottomlabel]
{12 fermions\\(+12 anti-fermions)\\increasing mass $\to$};
\draw [mbrace] (2.5,-3.6) -- (5.5,-3.6)
node[bottomlabel] {5 bosons\\(+1 opposite charge $W$)};

\draw [brace] (-0.5,.8) -- (0.5,.8) node[toplabel]         {standard matter};
\draw [brace] (0.5,.8)  -- (2.5,.8) node[toplabel]         {unstable matter};
\draw [brace] (2.5,.8)  -- (4.5,.8) node[toplabel]          {force carriers};
\draw [brace] (4.5,.8)  -- (5.5,.8) node[toplabel]       {Goldstone\\bosons};
\draw [brace] (5.5,.8)  -- (7,.8)   node[toplabel] {outside\\standard model};

\node at (0,1.2)   [generation] {1\tiny st};
\node at (1,1.2)   [generation] {2\tiny nd};
\node at (2,1.2)   [generation] {3\tiny rd};
\node at (2.8,1.2) [generation] {\tiny generation};
\end{tikzpicture}
\end{document}