# Example: LR constraints - Drawing and filling with arcs and Bezier curves

Published 2014-03-09 | Author: Henri Menke

We use TikZ to reproduce a diagram seen in an article “The Left-Right Planarity Test” by Ulrik Brandes.

At first we adjust the bounding box by hand, because the control points of the Bezier curves exceed the limits of the visible drawing.

The code was written by Henri Menke and published on TeX.SE.

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% LR constraints - Drawing and filling with arcs and Bezier curves
% Author: Henri Menke
\documentclass[tikz, border=10pt]{standalone}
\usetikzlibrary{calc}
\tikzset{
vertex/.style = {
circle,
fill      = black,
outer sep = 2pt,
inner sep = 1pt,
}
}
\begin{document}
\begin{tikzpicture}[>=stealth]
% We need to adjust the bounding box manually
% as the control points enlarge it.
\path[use as bounding box] (-1,-0.5) rectangle (1.5,5.5);

\coordinate (o) at (0,0);
\node[below] at (o) {root};
\draw node[vertex] (a) at (0,1) {};
\draw node[vertex] (b) at (0,2) {};
\draw node[vertex] (c) at (0,3) {};
\draw node[vertex] (d) at (0,4) {};
\node[above] at (d) {$v$};

\draw (d) node[left] {$e_1$} -- (-0.5,4.5);
\filldraw[draw=blue, fill=blue!50]
(-0.5,4.5) .. controls (-1,5) and (-0.75,4.5) .. ($(c)+(180:4pt)$)
-- ($(b)+(90:4pt)$) .. controls (-1,5) .. (-0.5,4.5);
\draw (d) node[right] {$e_2$} -- (0.5,4.5);
\filldraw[draw=red, fill=red!50]
(0.5,4.5) .. controls (1,5) and (0.75,4.5) .. ($(c)+(0:4pt)$)
-- ($(b)+(90:4pt)$) arc[start angle=90, end angle=0, radius=4pt]
($(b)+(0:4pt)$) .. controls (1,5) .. (0.5,4.5);
\draw[red, thick, ->] (0.5,4.5) .. controls (1,5) .. ($(b)+(0:4pt)$);
\draw[->] (-0.5,4.5) .. controls (-1,5) and (3,7) .. (a);

\draw[->] (o) -- (a) (a) -- (b) (b) -- (c) (c) -- node[left] {$e$} (d);
\end{tikzpicture}
\end{document}